Positive and negative schizotypy may represent discrete factors or dimensions. To determine if distinct neurocognitive profiles are associated with these dimensions or factors, we classified university students on the basis of positive and negative schizotypal symptoms and conducted separate analyses. Following prior work in the neuropsychiatric literature, we predicted that subtle prefrontal deficits would be selectively associated with negative schizotypal personality features in a nonclinical student sample, We also investigated the relationship between positive/negative schizotypy and associated clinical states or personality dimensions including antisocial personality disorder, obsessive-compulsive personality traits, generalized and social anxiety, empathy, and impulsivity. Classification of subjects into positive and negative schizotypy groups revealed distinct neurocognitive and clinical profiles. We observed a positive relation between measures of temporolimbic dysfunction, impulsivity, antisocial behavior, and positive schizotypal phenomena. Negative schizotypy was associated with subtle performance deficits on measures of frontal executive function, increased social anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive phenomena. Findings are consistent with the contention that positive and negative schizotypy represent discrete factors. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.