Timbre aesthetics in baglama performance: the determination of theoretical foundations, aesthetic codes of analysis, and instructional principles Bağlama icrasında tını estetiği: kuramsal temeller, estetik analiz kodlar ve öğretimsel ilkelerin belirlenmesi

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Rast Müzikoloji Dergisi, vol.11, no.1, pp.31-54, 2023 (Scopus) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 11 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.12975/rastmd.20231112
  • Journal Name: Rast Müzikoloji Dergisi
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.31-54
  • Keywords: aesthetic performance, artistic communication, bağlama methodology, bağlama teaching, musical ontology, timbre aesthetics
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes


Extended Abstract In this study, it has been tried to shed an interdisciplinary light on the baglama education of the future with the aim of obtaining the ideal tone in Turkish Folk Music, based on the theories of the science of aesthetics, which is the subject of sensory beauty. The theoretical foundations of timbre aesthetic playing technique in baglama have been tried to be established.The transfer of the baglama, which is accepted as the basic instrument of Anatolian music, to our present has been realized through the master-apprentice relationship of minstrels and poets. Methodical and curriculum-based baglama education has nearly half a century of experience and knowledge. In addition to the data in the existing baglama methods, this study aims to gain a new perspective on baglama education by emphasizing the timbre aesthetics and artistic communication qualities of the works. These qualities have not been taken under consideration so far. The main problem of this research is as follows: How to create awareness and perception of timbre aesthetics in teaching and performance of playing techniques with plenctrum [Turkish:tezene]. In this research, among qualitative research techniques, document analysis, descriptive, comparative analysis and observation were used. In order to describe the concept of aesthetic tone (timbre aesthetic), inductive discussions were made about sampling in baglama performances, analyzing different performances in the context of aesthetic tone, and producing new terminologies for Turkish folk music in terms of aesthetics. This study deals with the “timbre aesthetic playing technique” of folk songs and melodies and new terminological terms are included for aesthetic performance. Folk songs and melodies in question are those included in a baglama education method through timbre aesthetics and artistic communication. In addition, by focusing on the musical and literary features of an exemplary work in context of artistic communication, it is shown how the perception of aesthetic performance is created by analyzing the raison d’etre of the relevant work.In baglama performance, what is meant to be expressed by “timbre aesthetics” is a refined timbre. The meaning is accorded into this tone through the basic components of aesthetic context performance (musical and literary feature, performance style, artistic communication), contexts of content (lament, deyiş, halay, beautification [güzelleme], satire [taşlama]…) and terminological terms. As a sensation, it contains the emotion and enthusiasm obtained as a result of the sensational state such as brightness, clarity, simplicity and smoothness in the sound. It is also a refined tone that is formed as a result of the use of musical nuances, and this is what is placed at the center of this study. It has been pointed out that it is possible to eliminate the sound pollution in the performance by applying the “timbre aesthetic playing technique”, which may occur during the baglama performance, just as the sound interference that occurs during broadcasting is eliminated with the grounding line. In the study, apart from the information expressing the timbre aesthetics obtained with the tuning, attitude, performance quality and the structural feature of the baglama, the technical dimension of the timbre aesthetics that the performer will obtain with the timbre aesthetic playing technique has been discussed in six stages. Also the study puts forward the theoretical basis of timbre aesthetics obtained with the playing technique and nuances in the baglama. Fundamentals of obtaining timbre aesthetics (by timbre aesthetic playing technique) have been tried to be formed by giving detailed technical information ranging from the way to hold the plenctrum to the the pressure on strings. The study, taking into account the changes in baglama performance and education, the studies in the development and transfer process as well as the musical and literary form/genre information of the works, their cultural contexts, especially timbre aesthetics and artistic communication dimensions, takes into account contexts of musical ontology and reassess this ontology in this perspective. The idea that it can be taught with the method has been put forward. The study emphasizes that the perception that needs to be reached in the method studies used in baglama education in order to create an aesthetic baglama performance is not only the notation of the works, but also the cultural, theoretical and technical features that will add emotion, spirit and aesthetic dimension to those notes and the awareness of the student on this issue. As a result, it is predicted that the baglama methods, which will be prepared with the content of timbre aesthetics and the basic components of aesthetic baglama performance, will contribute to the purpose of creating the perception of aesthetic performance of students in all public and private institutions where baglama teaching is given, and will add a new dimension to the education process of baglama. In addition, it is predicted that as a result of the reflection of the timbre aesthetics on the baglama performance, more special tones will be obtained from the baglama and it will lead to a positive change in the musical taste of society. It is recommended to focus on the subject of “timbre aesthetic playing technique in baglama performance” in methodological studies that will be prepared in order to eliminate the deficiencies identified in terms of the perception of “timbre aesthetics” in baglama performance. It is recommended that timbre aesthetics, which is extremely important in terms of baglama teaching and performance, be academicized and institutionalized by all public and private institutions and organizations that provide baglama education, by means of taking this and similar studies as a model. In addition, it is recommended to test the applications in this context and to look at the results in future studies.