The compositions of Turkish bergamot oils produced by cold-pressing and steam distillation

Kirbaslar F., Kirbaslar S. , Dramur U.

JOURNAL OF ESSENTIAL OIL RESEARCH, vol.13, pp.411-415, 2001 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 13 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2001
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/10412905.2001.9699710
  • Page Numbers: pp.411-415


Bergamot oil was obtained from Turkish bergamot fruit (Citus bergamia Risso et Poit.) peels by cold pressing and steam distillation. The analysis of bergamot oil was carried out by capillary CC and GC/MS. In total, 47 components were fully characterized and grouped in six component classes (monoterpenes hydrocarbons, oxygenated compounds, sesquiterpenes, carbonyl compounds, alcohols, and esters) for an easier comparison of all oils. Variations during the fruit development of the percentage of the six classes were also described. The composition varied during the season; since the reported values referred to oil obtained from ripe fruits. The main components of the cold pressed Turkish bergamot oil coming from ripe fruits were limonene (37.2%), linalyl acetate (36.3%), linalool (7.9%), gamma-terpinene (5.9%), beta-pinene (3.9%) and myrcene (1.3%). The concentation of linalyl acetate was maximum level when the bergamot fruits reached full maturity characterized by a yellow coloration.