Bilateral pulmonary artery aneurysms developed in the course of staphylococcal endocarditis in a 6-year-old girl with ventricular septal defect. Consecutive computed tomography scans revealed the progressive enlargement of one of the aneurysms. She underwent an urgent left upper lobectomy because of the impending rupture and a possible life-threatening hemorrhage. The second ipsilateral aneurysm was plicated in order to exclude the aneurysm sac. In the next operation the ventricular septal defect was closed and vegetations located on the tricuspid valve were removed. On follow-up spontaneous thrombotic resolution occurred in the right-sided aneurysms. (C) 2003 by The Society of Thoracic Surgeons.