Effectiveness of Anodal otDCS Following with Anodal tDCS Rather than tDCS Alone for Increasing of Relative Power of Intrinsic Matched EEG Bands in Rat Brains

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Al-Tawarah N. M., Kaptan Z., Abu-Harirah H. A., Nofal M., Almajali B., Jarrar S., ...More

Brain Sciences, vol.13, no.1, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 13 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/brainsci13010072
  • Journal Name: Brain Sciences
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, EMBASE, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: EEG, frontal cortex, otDCS, relative band power, tDCS
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes


© 2022 by the authors.Background: This study sought to determine whether (1) evidence is available of interactions between anodal tDCS and oscillated tDCS stimulation patterns to increase the power of endogenous brain oscillations and (2) the frequency matching the applied anodal otDCS’s frequency and the brain’s dominant intrinsic frequency influence power shifting during stimulation pattern sessions by both anodal DCS and anodal oscillated DCS. Method: Rats received different anodal tDCS and otDCS stimulation patterns using 8.5 Hz and 13 Hz state-related dominant intrinsic frequencies of anodal otDCS. The rats were divided into groups with specific stimulation patterns: group A: tDCS–otDCS (8.5 Hz)–otDCS (13 Hz); group B: otDCS (8.5 Hz)–tDCS–otDCS (13 Hz); group C: otDCS (13 Hz)–tDCS–otDCS (8.5 Hz). Acute relative power changes (i.e., following 10 min stimulation sessions) in six frequency bands—delta (1.5–4 Hz), theta (4–7 Hz), alpha-1 (7–10 Hz), alpha-2 (10–12 Hz), beta-1 (12–15 Hz) and beta-2 (15–20 Hz)—were compared using three factors and repeated ANOVA measurement. Results: For each stimulation, tDCS increased theta power band and, above bands alpha and beta, a drop in delta power was observed. Anodal otDCS had a mild increasing power effect in both matched intrinsic and delta bands. In group pattern stimulations, increased power of endogenous frequencies matched exogenous otDCS frequencies—8.5 Hz or 13 Hz—with more potent effects in upper bands. The power was markedly more potent with the otDCS–tDCS stimulation pattern than the tDCS–otDCS pattern. Significance: The findings suggest that the otDCS–tDCS pattern stimulation increased the power in matched intrinsic oscillations and, significantly, in the above bands in an ascending order. We provide evidence for the successful corporation between otDCS (as frequency-matched guidance) and tDCS (as a power generator) rather than tDCS alone when stimulating a desired brain intrinsic band (herein, tES specificity).