Arşiv Belgeleriyle Dârülelhan


ÖZDEN E.

Konservatoryum - Conservatorium, cilt.5, ss.97-130, 2018 (Hakemli Üniversite Dergisi)

  • Cilt numarası: 5 Konu: 1
  • Basım Tarihi: 2018
  • Dergi Adı: Konservatoryum - Conservatorium
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.97-130

Özet

Dârülelhan, Osmanlı Maârif Nezareti bünyesinde açılmış olan ilk resmi müzik okuludur. Tâlîmatnâme, ders programları, okul binası ve eğitim kadrosu gibi gerekli düzenlemelerin bir kaç ayda tamamlanmasının ardından 1916 yılında faaliyete başlamıştır. Osmanlı İmparatorluğu, Dârülelhan’ın kurulduğu yıllarda I. Dünya Savaşı’nı kaybetmek üzeredir. Bu nedenle Dârülelhan’ı Avrupa’daki müzik okullarından ayıran en önemli özelliklerden biri, devletin büyük sıkıntılar içinde olduğu bir dönemde kurulmuş olmasıdır. Savaşın ağır şartlarında yeni kurulmuş bir konservatuvar olarak eğitime başlayan Dârülelhan, Türk müzik eğitiminde önemli bir rol üstlenmiştir. “Nağmeler Evi” anlamına gelen Dârülelhan, Türk müzik eğitimimize kazandırmış olduğu yöntem, program, icra disiplini ve notasyon çalışmaları ile günümüz konservatuvarlarına örnek teşkil etmiş ve Avrupa’da yürütülmekte olan müzik eğitimi yöntemlerinin ülkemizde uygulanması sağlamıştır. Özellikle Türk müziği eğitim sistemine pedogojik yaklaşım ve sistemli çalışmalar getirmiş olan Dârülelhan, klasik Türk müziğinin gelecek kuşaklara aktarılmasında önemli bir rol üstlenmiştir

Dârülelhan is the first official music school to be opened under the Ottoman Ministry of National Education. After completing the necessary arrangements such as legislation, curriculum, school building, and educational staffing in a few months, the school started in 1916. When Dârülelhan was founded, the Ottoman Empire was about to lose World War I. Therefore, one of the most important characteristics that distinguishs Dârülelhan from music schools in Europe is that this school was established at a time of great difficulty. Dârülelhan, which started training as a newly established conservatory under severe conditions of war, played an important role in Turkish music education. Dârülelhan, which means “house of melodies”, is an example for current conservatories with the method, program, performance discipline, and notation studies that has brought to our Turkish music education and has enabled the implementation of music education methods in Europe. It has played an important role for transferring classical Turkish music to future generations thanks to the pedagogical approach and systematic studies that has brought to the Turkish music education system in particular. Many important musicians were trained in Darülelhan, where many legendary musicians served as tutor in it, such as Tanbûri Cemil Bey, İsmail Bey, Zekâizade Ahmet Bey (Irsoy), Lavatacı Andon, Ali Rifat Çagatay, Abdulkadir Töre, Kâzım Uz, Rauf Yekta Bey, and Levon Hancıyan. In the Second Constitutional Era, Sultan Sultan V. Mehmet Reşad, who became the sultan after Sultan Abdülhamid, experienced the most difficult days of the Ottoman Empire for nine years. In this period, wars such as the Second Balkan War, Tripolitan War, World War I, and the Çanakkale Victory occurred. During Sultan Reşad’s period, there were two important developments that closely related to the Ottoman art life the schools of music and theater that were opened with the support of the Sultan. These schools, called Dârülelhan (House of Melody) and Darülbedayi (House of Beauties), are the first schools in their fields. Dârülelhan, which has an important place in Ottoman music education and was founded with the support of V. Mehmed Reşad, will be eloquently discussed in this article. Dârülelhan, established as the first official conservatory under the Ottoman Ministry of Education, is an important institution that provides the daily reach of the Turkish music education system. Since the beginning of its education in 1916, thousands of pieces of Turkish music have been saved from being forgotten and passed to future generations. Thus, it is necessary to see Dârülelhan as not only a conservatory but also as one of the most important elements for revival of Turkish music. Dârülelhan, which was established under the severe conditions of World War I, played an important role in creating music history with its method and modern education approach in the field of Turkish music. In addition to these artistic activities, the journal titled “Dârülelhan Şuûnu” was published by Darulelhan. This journal provided many articles published for the purpose of academically examine to Turkish music. Unfortunately, there is no serious source except for a few articles about Dârülelhan that has vital importance for Turkish music education and classical work transfer. This can be seen as a huge deficiency in the examination of the period of music education. Dârülelhan has played an important role in transferring classical Turkish music to future generations thanks to its pedagogical approach and systematic studies, which it brought to the Turkish music education system in particular. Many musicians have been educated in tis school, including important artists such as Zekâizade Ahmet Bey (Irsoy), Rauf Yekta Bey, Ali Rıfat Çağatay, Tanbûri Cemil Bey, İsmail Hakkı Bey, Levon Hancıyan, and Faize Ergin. This study was based on Ottoman archival documents related to Dârülelhan. Most of these documents, which will be published for the first time, have great importance in terms of Turkish musical history.