Although use of platelet gel (PG) for promoting tissue regeneration is a popular approach because of its capacity to accelerate tissue regeneration, to our knowledge, its effects on peripheral nerve have still not been elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate effects of PG on sciatic nerve regeneration using electrophysiology, stereology, and electron microscopy. The study was performed using five groups of rats: sham operated (Sham), collagen tube conduit (CT), collagen tube conduit plus platelet gel (CT + PG), autogenous nerve graft (ANG), and primary repair (PR) groups. Gap length for CT and CT + PG groups is 1 cm. Electrophysiology showed that nerve conduction velocity was not different among experimental groups; the amplitude of compound action potential of PR group was significantly higher than other groups. Examination of the nerves showed that Sham group not only had a larger axon diameter but also a thicker myelin sheath. A higher number of myelinated axon was found in both ANG and PR groups in comparison to Sham, CT, and CT+PG groups. There is no significant difference between morphological quantities of CT+PG and CT group. It was expected that regeneration degree of the nerve fibers of CT+PG group would be better than CT group, which was the control group permitting to disclose the presence of a positive effect of PG on nerve regeneration, but this was not the case. Therefore, our results suggest that PG does not improve axon regeneration after microsurgical reconstruction of a nerve gap by collagen tubes. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery 29:144-153, 2009.