Pre-cooling of ton-scale particle detectors in low radioactivity environments

Cappelli L., Pagliarone C. E. , Bucci C., D'Aguanno D., Erme G., Gorla P., ...More

28th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics (LT), Gothenburg, Sweden, 9 - 16 August 2017, vol.969 identifier identifier


Low radioactivity sites are mandatory to perform searches for rare processes that cannot be studied with particle accelerators and requires low environmental backgrounds. Neutrino-less double beta decay or Dark Matter searches must be performed in underground low radioactivity observatories. Large detectors are needed to increase the acceptances and proper cryogenic systems to run dedicated detectors. To reach the working temperatures, refrigerators as Pulse Tubes, Dilution Units are used inside complex cryostats. CUORE, Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events, is an experiment located at LNGS under the Gran Sasso mountain. So far, it's the coldest cubic meter and the largest cold mass ever realized. Its 998 TeO2 bolometers need to be kept at temperatures T<10 mK. Using only Pulse Tubes, CUORE needs several weeks to reach the baseline T. Then a Fast Cooling System has been designed and constructed for a faster precooling of the whole CUORE cold volume. The Fast Cooling System (FCS) consists of a cryostat with heat exchangers that use 3 Gifford-McMahon refrigerators, a He-4 compressor, a filtering module and several sensors that allow to monitor and control the system during CUORE cooldown. The present work describes the FCS and summarizes its performances during the first full CUORE cooldown.