We investigated the psychiatric symptomatology and the protracted symptoms in patients who had recovered from the acute COVID-19 infection. Two hundred and eighty-four patients completed a web-based or a paper survey on socio-demographic and clinical data. The psychiatric status was assessed using Impact of Events Scale Revised (IES-R), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and MINI suicidality scale. Patients completed a checklist for the protracted symptoms that were experienced after the acute infection. After a mean of almost 50 days following the diagnosis, 98 patients (34.5%) reported clinically significant PTSD, anxiety, and/or depression, with PTSD being the most common condition reported (25.4%). One hundred and eighteen patients (44.3%) reported one or more protracted symptom(s). Predictors of PTSD symptom severity were the female gender, past traumatic events, protracted symptoms, stigmatization, and a negative view on the COVID-19 pandemic. PTSD symptom severity was the sole independent predictor of the protracted symptoms. Our results suggest that COVID-19 patients are prone to substantial psychological distress in the first few months after the infection. The protracted symptoms were frequent in this period, and these were closely related to the posttraumatic symptoms.