Communication strategy use of EFL learners in videoconferencing, virtual world and face-to-face environments

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Cirit-Isikligil N. C., Sadler R. W., ARICA AKKÖK E.

RECALL, vol.35, pp.122-138, 2023 (AHCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 35
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1017/s0958344022000210
  • Journal Name: RECALL
  • Journal Indexes: Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Computer & Applied Sciences, EBSCO Education Source, Educational research abstracts (ERA), ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), INSPEC, Linguistics & Language Behavior Abstracts, MLA - Modern Language Association Database, Psycinfo
  • Page Numbers: pp.122-138
  • Keywords: communication strategy, computer-mediated communication, virtual world, videoconferencing, English as a foreign language
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: No


This study investigates the communication strategy (CS) use of English as a foreign language (EFL) learners in videoconferencing (VC), virtual world (VW), and face-to-face environments. The study was conducted with 30 senior Turkish undergraduate EFL students. The data were collected via video and audio recordings of three opinion-exchange tasks, a background and post-task questionnaire, and an interview that includes a retrospective think-aloud protocol. The participants worked in groups of five to complete the opinion-exchange tasks in each of the three environments. The findings indicated that the participants made use of a wide range of CSs, and although some of the CSs differed, mostly the same types were employed in all the environments. However, the results revealed that the frequency of CSs showed variance among environments, with the highest number in the VC environment and the lowest in the VW. It was possible to establish a connection between the differences in the frequency and the types of strategy use with the distinctive features of the environments, the proficiency level of the participants, and the type of the tasks that was utilized. Additively, 10 new strategy types were discovered.