TÜRKİYE’DE İŞLETMECİLİK EĞİTİMİNDE AMERİKANİZASYON: ULUSLARARASI RAPORLARIN NİTELİKSEL ÇERÇEVESİNİN KARŞILAŞTIRILMASI


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Külli B. , Arslantaş C. C.

3. İşletme Tarihi Konferansı, İstanbul, Türkiye, 24 Eylül 2020, ss.38-41

  • Basıldığı Şehir: İstanbul
  • Basıldığı Ülke: Türkiye
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.38-41

Özet

Türkiye’de modern anlamda işletmecilik eğitimi iki farklı paradigma ekseninde gelişmiştir. Bu paradigmalar, Alman ve Amerikan ekolleridir (B. Üsdiken: 2003). 1937 sonrası İstanbul Üniversitesi İktisat Fakültesi’nde meşruiyete kavuşan Alman ekolü, 1950’lere kadar Türkiye’deki işletmecilik eğitiminde ağırlığını korumuştur (B. Adiloğlu ve G. Yücel: 2019). Buna karşın, İkinci Dünya Savaşı sonrasında Avrupa’da hızla gelişen Amerikanizasyon hareketinden en çok etkilenen ülkelerden biri Türkiye olmuştur. Amerikanizasyon hareketi Türkiye’de siyasi, iktisadi ve endüstriyel anlamda değişimlere ve gelişmelere yol açmıştır (B. Üsdiken: 2009). İktisadi ve Endüstriyel alandaki gelişmeler beraberinde Türkiye’deki işletmecilik sorunlarını çağdaş metotlarla ele almayı, işletmecilik eğitimini ve yönetici yetiştirilmesinin önemini gözler önüne sermiştir. Her iki ekolün gelişimi karşılaştırıldığında Alman ekolü daha çok bireysel girişimler etrafında şekillenirken, Amerikan ekolü daha karmaşık bir şekilde İşletmecilik Eğitimi’nin şekillenmesine neden olmuştur. Bu bakımdan, İşletmecilik eğitiminde Amerikanizasyon’un karmaşık sürecinin nasıl olduğu sorunsalı irdelenmesi gerektiği düşünülmektedir. 

Two different paradigms shaped the modern basics of business education in Turkey. These paradigms are German Ecole and American Ecole. Soon after found the Faculty of Economics at Istanbul University, in 1937, the German Ecole gained its legitimization in the Turkey context, and the intense impact of the Ecole continued until the 1950s. However, after the WWII, Turkey was one of the most affected countries in Europe by the Americanization that rapidly growing movement all around the world. The Americanization movement prompt veer off in a new direction to Turkey in fields such as politics, economics, and industrial. Indeed, developments in economics and industrial areas showed the importance of the approach to business problems with modern methods and, need for business education and executive trainings in the Turkish context. When compared to the evolution of two paradigms, the German Ecole in Turkey directed mostly by individual pioneers. The ascend of American Ecole in Turkey was shaped by not just individuals but institutions. In this context, the question of how to find the Americanization movement occurs within the of Europe and Turkey frameworks should be considered first. The evolution of both German Ecole and American Ecole in business education was referred by different researches before. However, no one research detailly and comparatively focus causes on the Americanization. Therefore, it's significant to reveal which fields of business education affected by Americanization to (1) understand the circumstance of the period, and (2) uncover the basics today's business education. In the process that started with the Truman doctrine in 1947, the governments both the USA and Turkey were closed, in terms of politics and economic relationships. USA based institutions conducted the economic, financial, cultural, agricultural, and industrial mutual works in Turkey. This research aims to both classify reports related to the Americanization movement according to their types and, develop an understanding of the basics of Americanization in Turkey's business education. S a y f a 41 24 Eylül 2020 III. İşletme Tarihi Konferansı Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi I I I . İ ş l e t m e T a r i h i K o n f e r a n s ı In the research, the Truman Doctrine (1947), the Marshall Plan (1948-1951), World Bank Report (1951), Turkey - UN Technical Assistance Additional Agreement (1952), Gordon and Howel Report (1959) and, Pierson Report have examined with the document review qualitative research method. The comparative historical research method used in this study. The findings were analyzed using both descriptive analysis and content analysis. Above six reports were examined in the context of the Americanization movement. The reports have split into three different types, namely politic-based, economic-based, and educational system based. As a result, it has shown how the different ways of the Americanization movements affected Turkey’s business education system, focusing on the evolution of business education at Istanbul University.