Identifying early-detection biomarkers have become an increasingly important approach in the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we investigated the potential of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), complement factor H(CFH), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), interleukin 10 (IL-10), and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) as serum biomarkers for AD in a cohort of the Turkish population because they have been suggested to be associated with AD. Serum BDNF, CFH, TNF alpha, IL-10, and Hsp90 levels in three groups of patients, early-onset AD (EOAD; age of onset < 65; n = 22), late-onset AD (LOAD; age of onset > 65; n = 54), and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 30), were compared with age-matched healthy controls (age < 65, n = 18 and age > 65; n = 32) using ELISA. The serum BDNF levels significantly decreased and TNF alpha levels significantly increased in the EOAD and LOAD groups compared to the age-matched healthy controls. There was a correlation between serum TNF alpha and IL-10 levels in the LOAD and healthy control groups. Serum CFH levels in the LOAD and MCI patients were significantly decreased compared with controls. Serum Hsp90 levels in the EOAD, LOAD, and MCI patients were significantly decreased compared with controls. The protein misfolding, the inflammatory response, and decreased neurotrophic factor synthesis are all suggested to be related to AD type brain pathology, and our results indicate these alterations might be traced from serum samples. For accurate early diagnosis of AD, it is important to determine a profile of alterations in multiple biomarkers in large-scale population studies.