Super-massive objects in Yarman-Arik-Kholmetskii (YARK) gravitation theory


Yarman T., Arik M., KHOLMETSKII A., Yarman O. U.

CANADIAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS, cilt.94, ss.271-278, 2016 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier

  • Yayın Türü: Makale / Tam Makale
  • Cilt numarası: 94 Konu: 3
  • Basım Tarihi: 2016
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1139/cjp-2015-0689
  • Dergi Adı: CANADIAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.271-278

Özet

We continue to analyze the implications of the gravitational framework of our theoretical approach, christened YARK (abbreviated from Yarman-Arik-Kholmetskii), with respect to super-massive celestial bodies. We emphasize in particular that a gravitating test particle in the presence of a ponderable mass must adhere to the law of energy conservation, which remarkably does not yield any singularity according to YARK. Even so, for a given spherically shaped extremely compact super-massive body, one can achieve a theoretical radius below which "light" of, say, the visible frequency range can indeed be trapped. Yet, such a radius comes out to be tens of times shorter than the threshold radius for black hole formation as established by the general theory of relativity (GTR). In accordance with our derivations, the minimal mass for a celestial object capable of recapturing emitted light in its environs - similar to textbook "intermediate class black holes" - is found to be about 10(3)M(S), where M-S stands for the mass of the Sun. For less massive celestial objects, the crucial radius that produces a "YARK black hole" (i.e., without singularity) corresponds to a higher density than the density of a baryon; and hence, such entities cannot apparently exist in nature. Black holes allowed therefore in our approach are not related, in any case, to the singularity conceptualization of GTR. As a consequence, we are able to present a resolution to the "black hole information paradox". The findings of YARK will be discussed hereinafter with regards to the foundations of observational cosmology.

ABSTRACT

We continue to analyze the implications of the gravitational framework of our theoretical approach, christened YARK (abbreviated from Yarman–Arik–Kholmetskii), with respect to super-massive celestial bodies. We emphasize in particular that a gravitating test particle in the presence of a ponderable mass must adhere to the law of energy conservation, which remarkably does not yield any singularity according to YARK. Even so, for a given spherically shaped extremely compact super-massive body, one can achieve a theoretical radius below which “light” of, say, the visible frequency range can indeed be trapped. Yet, such a radius comes out to be tens of times shorter than the threshold radius for black hole formation as established by the general theory of relativity (GTR). In accordance with our derivations, the minimal mass for a celestial object capable of recapturing emitted light in its environs — similar to textbook “intermediate class black holes” — is found to be about 103MS, where MS stands for the mass of the Sun. For less massive celestial objects, the crucial radius that produces a “YARK black hole” (i.e., without singularity) corresponds to a higher density than the density of a baryon; and hence, such entities cannot apparently exist in nature. Black holes allowed therefore in our approach are not related, in any case, to the singularity conceptualization of GTR. As a consequence, we are able to present a resolution to the “black hole information paradox”. The findings of YARK will be discussed hereinafter with regards to the foundations of observational cosmology.

Keywords: black holesingularityevent horizongeneral theory of relativityYARK theory,Yarman’s Approach

PACS Nos.:  95.30.Sf