Objectives: Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is carried in plasma by the HDL particles and albumin. It mediates several protective functions of HDL. Because of its barrier-enhancing effect, it has attracted attention in diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction. We examined the impact of circulating levels of S1P in diabetic nephropathy together with apoprotein M, a S1P-binding protein in HDL. Plasma levels of dimethylarginines were evaluated in this context.