Background: Cylin D1(CCDN1) is an important regulator of the cell cycle whose alterations are thought to be involved in cancer development. There have been many studies indicating CCDN1 amplification or overexpression in a variety of cancer types. In addition to gene amplification, the G870A polymorphism may be related with altered CCDN1 activity, and therefore with cancer development. This hypothesis has been tested in different cancer types but results have been contradictory. We therefore aimed to investigate any relationship between CCDN1 A870G genotypes and laryngeal squamous cell cancer development and progression. Materials and Methods: A total of 68 Turkish patients with primary laryngeal squamous cell cancer and 133 healthy controls were enrolled. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to determine the CCDN1 genotypes. Results: No significant association was detected between CCDN1 genotypes and laryngeal squamous cell cancer (LxSCCa) development. Similarly CCDN1 genotypes were not related to clinical parameters of Lx SCCa. However, there was a very significant association between CCDN1 G allele and presence of perineural invasion (p= 0.003; OR: 1.464; CI% 1.073-1.999). CCDN1 G allele frequency was significantly higher in the individuals with perineural invasion (85.7%) when compared to those without (58.5%). The 2 patients who died of disease were both found to possess the GG genotype. Conclusions: These results pose a controversy in suggesting a protective role of the G allele against LxSCCa development and support the association of CCDN1 gene GG genotype with mortality in patients with LxSCCa.