Influenza surveillance in Western Turkey in the era of quadrivalent vaccines: A 2003-2016 retrospective analysis

Mese S., Uyanik A., Ozakay A., Ozturk S., Badur S.

HUMAN VACCINES & IMMUNOTHERAPEUTICS, vol.14, no.8, pp.1899-1908, 2018 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier


Human influenza is predominantly caused by influenza A virus (IAV) - A/H1N1 and/or A/H3N2 - and influenza B virus (IBV) - B/Victoria and/or B/Yamagata, which co-circulate each season. Influenza surveillance provides important information on seasonal disease burden and circulation, and vaccine content for the following season. To study the circulating influenza subtypes/lineages in western Turkey. Community-based sentinel surveillance results during 2003-2016 (weeks 40-20 each season; but week 21, 2009 through week 20, 2010 during the pandemic) were analyzed. Nasal/nasopharyngeal swabs from patients with influenza-like illness were tested for influenza virus and characterized as A/H1N1, A/H3N2, or IBV. A subset of IBV samples was further characterized as B/Victoria or B/Yamagata. Among 14,429 specimens (9,766 collected during interpandemic influenza seasons; 4,663 during the 2009-2010 pandemic), 3,927 (27.2%) were positive. Excluding the pandemic year (2009-2010), 645 (27.4%) samples were characterized as A/H1N1 or A/H1N1/pdm09, 958 (40.7%) as A/H3N2, and 752 (31.9%) as IBV, but the dominant subtype/lineage varied widely each season. During the pandemic year (2009-2010), 98.3% of cases were A/H1N1/pdm09. IBV accounted for 0-60.2% of positive samples each season. The IBV lineages in circulation matched the vaccine IBV lineage >50% in six seasons and <50% in four seasons; with an overall mismatch of 49.7%. IBV cases tended to peak later than IAV cases within seasons. These results have important implications for vaccine composition and optimal vaccination timing. Quadrivalent vaccines containing both IBV lineages can reduce B-lineage mismatch, thus reducing the burden of IBV disease.