In this article, Gokalpian approach to culture and civilization has been focused on. His theory of culture and civilization has been widely accepted and analyzed as an approach serving as the formula of how to Westernize while preserving Turkish and Muslim identities concurrently. In this study, another point regarding this theory will be discussed in detail. The main assertion of this essay is that the Gokalpian theory of culture and civilization, which claims to solve mentality problems of Turkish state and society in terms of Westernization, also brings various potential problems regarding theory and praxis. These problems stem from conflicting conceptions of culture and civilization, and especially from contradictory contents of 'Turkishness' concept. This article tries to demonstrate the mentioned problematic areas initially by dealing with the etymological developments of culture and civilization concepts. Thereafter, the Gtkalpian understanding of society in general, his approaches on Turkish society, and specifically his theory of culture and civilization are analyzed. Finally, a critical evaluation of the content of Gokalpian concepts and theory is provided which aims to display their contradictory aspects.