Allergenic components, biocides, and analysis techniques of some essential oils used in food products

Turkmenoglu A., ÖZMEN D.

JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, vol.86, no.6, pp.2225-2241, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 86 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/1750-3841.15753
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Analytical Abstracts, Applied Science & Technology Source, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Computer & Applied Sciences, EMBASE, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, INSPEC, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database, DIALNET
  • Page Numbers: pp.2225-2241
  • Keywords: allergen, analysis, biocides, essential oils, food
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: No


Nowadays, almost 300 essential oils (EOs) are commonly traded in the world market, with a prediction to be worth over $14 billion in 2024. EOs are natural preservatives for food products in order to reduce the activity of pathogenic microorganisms, therefore their use as an antioxidant or a preservative in foods has been encouraged. They are not only considered as antimicrobial or flavoring agents, but are also incorporated into food packaging materials. There are several types of EOs which have been approved as food additives by the Food and Drug Administration. Hence, it is important to use safe EO products to minimize possible adverse effect risks such as nausea, vomiting, necrosis, nephropathy, mucous membrane, and skin irritation. This review article gives information about some EOs that are used in the food industries and the types of some allergenic compounds and biocides which could make the EOs hazardous or may cause allergenic reactions in the human body. Besides, some analysis techniques of possible allergenic compounds or biocides in EOs were introduced and supported with the most relevant studies. The overall conclusion from the study is that pregnant women, patients taking drugs (e.g., diabetics) or the having a history of allergy are the most prone to be affected from EO allergenic components. As regards to biocides, organochlorine and organophosphorus types of pesticides that are carried over from the plant may be found mostly in EOs. The most common allergic reaction is skin sensitization and irritation if the EO components are oxidized during storage or transportation. Moreover, drug interactions are one of the other possible adverse effect. Hence, determination of biocides and possible allergenic component concentrations is an essential factor when they are used as a preservative or flavoring agent. The most prominent analysis techniques are gas and liquid chromatography because most of the allergens and biocides are mainly composed of volatile components.