Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by some species of mould genera such as Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. Mycotoxins are carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and immunosuppressive to most animal species and humans. Humans are exposed to aflatoxins via risky foods such as milk, cereals and various spices. This study aimed to determine the aflatoxin levels in red scaled, red and black pepper. For this purpose, 84 spice samples were randomly obtained from markets and bazaars in Istanbul. Thirty-six of 84 spice samples (42.9%) were found contaminated with aflatoxins in the range of 0.3-46.8 mu g/kg. All positive samples were also analyzed and confirmed by HPLC. The results obtained by ELISA were closely related to those by HPLC. In conclusion, aflatoxins continue to pose a health concern via human exposure to contaminated spices.