The purpose of this study was to understand the role of academic (achievement goal orientation, academic self-efficacy) and psychological (resilience, test anxiety) variables in predicting transition from primary to secondary education (TEOG) test achievement. Participants were eighth grade students (N = 334) in Istanbul. The data was gathered via 2 x 2 achievement goal questionnaire-revised, academic self-efficacy scale, resilience scale for early adolescents, state-trait anxiety inventory and information form. Results showed that the mastery-approach, performance-approach, performance-avoidance, academic self-efficacy, psychological resilience, and trait anxiety were significant predictors of TEOG scores of the students. This study showed that the success of the national-level transition to high school exam in Turkey was strongly associated with academic variables, and also weakly associated with psychological variables.